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Unit Testing RESTful Services

In my two previous posts I gave an introduction on how to consume a RESTful web service with AngularJS created by a Java backend and use Guice in the Java backend.

In this post I will show how to create a unit test for this web service.

Most of this code is inspired by a blog post from Paulo Renato de Athaydes.

We will need to install some new dependencies:

  • jetty-maven-plugin
  • junit
  • jersey-client
  • jersey-grizzly2

Grizzly will be our web server for testing.

pom.xml
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <name>ngdemo Maven Webapp</name>
    <groupId>ngdemo</groupId>
    <artifactId>ngdemo</artifactId>
    <packaging>war</packaging>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>

    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <jersey.version>1.17.1</jersey.version>
        <guice.version>3.0</guice.version>
    </properties>

    <build>
        <finalName>ngdemo</finalName>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>3.0</version>
                <configuration>
                    <source>1.7</source>
                    <target>1.7</target>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.mortbay.jetty</groupId>
                <artifactId>jetty-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>8.1.11.v20130520</version>
                <configuration>
                    <scanIntervalSeconds>10</scanIntervalSeconds>
                    <connectors>
                        <connector implementation="org.eclipse.jetty.nio.SelectChannelConnector">
                            <port>8080</port>
                            <maxIdleTime>60000</maxIdleTime>
                        </connector>
                    </connectors>
                    <stopKey/>
                    <stopPort/>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

    <dependencies>

        <!-- javax: XML binding -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.xml.bind</groupId>
            <artifactId>jaxb-api</artifactId>
            <version>2.1</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- RESTful web service: Jersey ====================================== -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-server</artifactId>
            <version>${jersey.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-servlet</artifactId>
            <version>${jersey.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-json</artifactId>
            <version>${jersey.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Guice ============================================================= -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.google.inject</groupId>
            <artifactId>guice</artifactId>
            <version>${guice.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.google.inject.extensions</groupId>
            <artifactId>guice-servlet</artifactId>
            <version>${guice.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey.contribs</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-guice</artifactId>
            <version>${jersey.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Required for bypassing web.xml via Guice. Used in TestServlet.java -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
            <version>3.0.1</version>
            <scope>provided</scope>
        </dependency>


        <!-- Unit testing ====================================================== -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>4.11</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-client</artifactId>
            <version>${jersey.version}</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.sun.jersey</groupId>
            <artifactId>jersey-grizzly2</artifactId>
            <version>${jersey.version}</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

Our class under test is UserRestService.java:

UserRestService.java
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package ngdemo.rest;

import com.google.inject.Inject;
import ngdemo.domain.User;
import ngdemo.service.contract.UserService;

import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;


@Path("/users")
public class UserRestService {

    private final UserService userService;

    @Inject
    public UserRestService(UserService userService) {
        this.userService = userService;
    }

    @GET
    @Produces(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
    public User getDefaultUserInJSON() {
        return userService.getDefaultUser();
    }
}

Here is the corresponding unit test class UserRestServiceTest.java:

UserRestServiceTest.java
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package ngdemo.tests;

import com.google.inject.Guice;
import com.google.inject.Injector;
import com.google.inject.servlet.ServletModule;
import com.sun.jersey.api.client.Client;
import com.sun.jersey.api.client.ClientResponse;
import com.sun.jersey.api.client.WebResource;
import com.sun.jersey.api.client.config.DefaultClientConfig;
import com.sun.jersey.api.container.grizzly2.GrizzlyServerFactory;
import com.sun.jersey.api.core.PackagesResourceConfig;
import com.sun.jersey.api.core.ResourceConfig;
import com.sun.jersey.core.spi.component.ioc.IoCComponentProviderFactory;
import com.sun.jersey.guice.spi.container.GuiceComponentProviderFactory;
import ngdemo.repositories.contract.UserRepository;
import ngdemo.repositories.impl.UserRepositoryImpl;
import ngdemo.service.contract.UserService;
import ngdemo.service.impl.UserServiceImpl;
import org.glassfish.grizzly.http.server.HttpServer;
import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;

import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;
import javax.ws.rs.core.UriBuilder;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.URI;

import static junit.framework.Assert.assertEquals;

public class UserRestServiceTest {

    static final URI BASE_URI = getBaseURI();
    HttpServer server;

    private static URI getBaseURI() {
        return UriBuilder.fromUri("http://localhost/").port(9998).build();
    }

    @Before
    public void startServer() throws IOException {
        System.out.println("Starting grizzly...");

        Injector injector = Guice.createInjector(new ServletModule() {
            @Override
            protected void configureServlets() {
                bind(UserService.class).to(UserServiceImpl.class);
                bind(UserRepository.class).to(UserRepositoryImpl.class);
            }
        });

        ResourceConfig rc = new PackagesResourceConfig("ngdemo.rest");
        IoCComponentProviderFactory ioc = new GuiceComponentProviderFactory(rc, injector);
        server = GrizzlyServerFactory.createHttpServer(BASE_URI + "rest/", rc, ioc);

        System.out.println(String.format("Jersey app started with WADL available at "
                + "%srest/application.wadl\nTry out %sngdemo\nHit enter to stop it...",
                BASE_URI, BASE_URI));
    }

    @After
    public void stopServer() {
        server.stop();
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetDefaultUser() throws IOException {
        Client client = Client.create(new DefaultClientConfig());
        WebResource service = client.resource(getBaseURI());
        ClientResponse resp = service.path("rest").path("users")
                .accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
                .get(ClientResponse.class);
        System.out.println("Got stuff: " + resp);
        String text = resp.getEntity(String.class);

        assertEquals(200, resp.getStatus());
        assertEquals("{\"firstName\":\"JonFromREST\",\"lastName\":\"DoeFromREST\"}", text);
    }
}

In the startServer method we create an injector for Guice, which we can then pass into the GuiceComponentProviderFactory to create the inversion of control (IoC) container.

Together with the ResourceConfig the IoC container is passed to Grizzly’s server factory to create the web server for testing.

Within the actual test method testGetDefaultUser we only have to setup the Jersey Client to retrieve the response (from the Grizzly server).

Here’s the test output from Maven:

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$ mvn test
...
-------------------------------------------------------
 T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running ngdemo.tests.UserRestServiceTest
Starting grizzly...
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:35 PM com.sun.jersey.api.core.PackagesResourceConfig init
INFO: Scanning for root resource and provider classes in the packages:
  ngdemo.rest
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:35 PM com.sun.jersey.api.core.ScanningResourceConfig logClasses
INFO: Root resource classes found:
  class ngdemo.rest.UserRestService
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:35 PM com.sun.jersey.api.core.ScanningResourceConfig init
INFO: No provider classes found.
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:35 PM com.sun.jersey.server.impl.application.WebApplicationImpl _initiate
INFO: Initiating Jersey application, version 'Jersey: 1.17.1 02/28/2013 12:47 PM'
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:36 PM com.sun.jersey.guice.spi.container.GuiceComponentProviderFactory getComponentProvider
INFO: Binding ngdemo.rest.UserRestService to GuiceInstantiatedComponentProvider
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:37 PM org.glassfish.grizzly.http.server.NetworkListener start
INFO: Started listener bound to [localhost:9998]
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:37 PM org.glassfish.grizzly.http.server.HttpServer start
INFO: [HttpServer] Started.
Jersey app started with WADL available at http://localhost:9998/rest/application.wadl
Try out http://localhost:9998/ngdemo
Hit enter to stop it...
Got stuff: GET http://localhost:9998/rest/users returned a response status of 200 OK
Jul 19, 2013 1:50:37 PM org.glassfish.grizzly.http.server.NetworkListener stop
INFO: Stopped listener bound to [localhost:9998]
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 2.604 sec

Results :

Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 6.378s

Test time is 2.6 sec. Not bad considering we are starting a web server, deploying our app, creating a client, running the test and shutting down the web server.

Running this test from within IntelliJ takes: 0.009 sec…

You can clone a copy of this project here: https://github.com/draptik/angulardemorestful.

To checkout the correct version for this demo, use the following code:

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git clone git@github.com:draptik/angulardemorestful.git
cd angulardemorestful
git checkout -f step3-backend-test

In case you are not using git you can also download the project as ZIP or tar.gz file here: https://github.com/draptik/angulardemorestful/releases/tag/step3-backend-test

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